Juan Antonio Orellana carries out traditional artistic cobblestone pavements from the region of Granada following the following process:
Step 1. He mixes sand and cement with a proportion 1:1. Step 2. He spreads the dry mixture of sand and cement in the place where the cobblestones are going to be placed. It is spread without adding any water to the mixture. Step 3. The layer of this dry mixture is smoothened out and the motive is hand-drawn using a finger. On top of that hand-drawn motif they start placing the stones, the black coloured stone pebbles are placed in an orderly way, edgewise, while the white ones are placed more randomly occupying the free space within the others. This dry layer is screeded and the motive is drawn with the finger. On top of the drawing the black coloured stone or laja is placed edgeways and forming a herringbone pattern (this is the characteristic which distinguishes this type of artistic stone paving in Granada from other ornamental types of paving), and the white stones are used to cover the rest of the surface, covering the gaps between the other stones placed before them. Step 4. Once the process of placing the stones has finished the entire surface is compacted with a piece of wood called pisón (hand rammer), to make all the stones remain at the same level, with no unevenness. Once the processes of compacting and levelling are completed, then the process of hardening/setting takes place and after that there is a second ramming phase to ensure the compactness of the paving.
The selection of the material is something very important and rather basic at the same time. On the one hand, one has to search for materials which are long-lasting and able to bear abrasion and friction from the passing of pedestrians, heavy vehicles, etc. At the same time, it must be a material which is by nature stable physically and chemically, not presenting any kind of issues relating to water and which has a good performance when it comes to chemical agents which can be present in the paving of any street in any city. Moreover, it must also be a material which is capable – when put together with the others – to create a smooth flat surface which is easy and comfortable for pedestrians to tread on. For all these reasons, the materials which are used for this purpose are pebbles, or stones found in rivers or watercourses. They are stones rich in quartz, with very few pores which don’t let in salts or humidity and whose exterior edges have been rounded by erosion over time, which makes them ideal to be used for this kind of floors.
Materials: white stones (pebbles), black stones (laja), cement and sand.
Tools: plastering trowel, flexometer, splint, mallet, blocks of wood, thread which is used on site, shovel and roller, baskets, water hose and watering can, sweeping brushes and pencils to be used on site.
He also manufactures ceramic and glass tile mosaics.
Tools: tile cutter, different types of pliers, files or sandstone, pencils, rubbers, trowels, brushes and paint brushes, scissors, baskets, hard hair brushes, sponges and templates for drawing.
Materials: tiling of different colours, marble powder, white cement, wrapping paper, carpenter’s glue, welded steel grille, plywood panels, wooden strips of wood, coloured pencils, plastic and gypsum.
Masonry instructor for the Urban plan in Loja (2009/10), at the T.E. “Naves y edificios de estructura metálica” in Loja (2003/04), at the T.E. “La Candelaria” in Pulianas, Granada (2002/03), at the Workshop for Employment “Zona Norte” IMFE, Granada (1999/2000)
Instructor for the manufacture of Paving at the T.E. “Empedrado” in Loja (2006/07), at the T.E. “Benaudalla” in Vélez de Benaudalla (2005/06).
Instructor for the manufacture of Granadine Paving and other types of Paving at the E.T. “Urbe Nazarí” IMFE, Granada (2000/02), instructor for the manufacture of Granadine Paving with “Unión Romaní Andalucía” (2000), instructor for the manufacture of Granadine Paving and other types of Paving at the E.T. “Carmen de los Mártires”, IMFE, Granada (1997/99). Instructor for the manufacture of Granadine Paving and other types of Paving at the C.O. “Hiponova” in Montefrío (1996/97), instructor for the manufacture of Granadine Paving and other types of Paving at the E.T. in Salobreña, Granada (1994/96), instructor for the manufacture of Granadine Paving at the E.T. “Maestro Maíz de Castro I” in Loja, Granada (1990/93). Instructor of the monographic courses delivered at the Centro Albayzin: “Teselas” (2009), “Restauración y rehabilitación de pavimentos decorativos: Empedrado artístico granadino”, (2008), “Pavimentos decorativos: empedrado granadino” (2008), “Pavimentos decorativos. Elaboración de mosaicos con teselas” (2007).